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A Kellogg's telephone help desk employee was not willing to discuss the ingredients of their products in general, claiming it was a company secret; although, in the show, the company was not confronted with the findings. The s and s marked a dramatic increase in the growth of the bodybuilding supplement industry, fueled by widespread use of modern marketing techniques and a marked increase in recreational bodybuilding. Liquid diets Very low calorie. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Bodybuilding supplements Instant foods and drinks.


In addition, some argue that bodybuilders, by virtue of their unique training and goals, require higher-than-average quantities of protein to support maximal muscle growth; [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] however there is no scientific consensus for bodybuilders to consume more protein than the recommended dietary allowance.

Protein powders are the most popular and may have flavoring added for palatability. The powder is usually mixed with water, milk or fruit juice and is generally consumed immediately before and after exercising or in place of a meal. The sources of protein are as follows and differ in protein quality depending on their amino acid profile and digestibility:. Some nutritionists claim that osteoporosis may occur from excessive protein intake because protein can put pressure on the kidneys and lead to bone loss due to calcium leaching.

Some bodybuilders believe that amino acid supplements may benefit muscle development, but consumption of such supplements is unnecessary in a diet that already includes adequate protein intake.

Prohormones are precursors to hormones and are most typically sold to bodybuilders as a precursor to the natural hormone testosterone. This conversion requires naturally occurring enzymes in the body. Side effects are not uncommon, as prohormones can also convert further into DHT and estrogen. To deal with this, many supplements also have aromatase inhibitors and DHT blockers such as chrysin and 4-androstene-3,6,trione.

To date most prohormone products have not been thoroughly studied, and the health effects of prolonged use are unknown. Although initially available over the counter, their purchase was made illegal without a prescription in the US in , and they hold similar status in many other countries.

They remain legal, however, in the United Kingdom and the wider European Union. Their use is prohibited by most sporting bodies. Creatine is an organic acid naturally occurring in the body that supplies energy to muscle cells for short bursts of energy as required in lifting weights via creatine phosphate replenishment of ATP. A number of scientific studies have shown that creatine can improve strength, [32] energy, [33] muscle mass, and recovery times. In addition, recent studies have also shown that creatine improves brain function.

Creatine increases what is known as cell volumization by drawing water into muscle cells, making them larger. Creatine is sold in a variety of forms, including creatine monohydrate and creatine ethyl ester , amongst others. Though all types of creatine are sold for the same purposes, there are subtle differences between them, such as price and necessary dosage.

Creatine monohydrate is regarded as a necessity by most bodybuilders. Creatine monohydrate is the most cost-effective dietary supplement in terms of muscle size and strength gains. This can be accomplished by mixing powdered creatine with grape juice, lemonade, or many high glycemic index drinks. Some studies have suggested that consumption of creatine with protein and carbohydrates can have a greater effect than creatine combined with either protein or carbohydrates alone.

The inhibition of exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage by HMB is affected by the time that it is used relative to exercise. Meal replacement products MRPs are either pre-packaged powdered drink mixes or edible bars designed to replace prepared meals. MRPs are generally high in protein, low in fat, have a low to moderate amount of carbohydrates, and contain a wide array of vitamins and minerals. Some MRPs also contain flax oil powder as a source of essential fatty acids. MRPs can also contain other ingredients, such as creatine monohydrate , glutamine peptides, L-glutamine , calcium alpha-ketoglutarate , additional amino acids, lactoferrin , conjugated linoleic acid , and medium-chain triglycerides.

A sub-class of MRPs is colloquially known as "weight gainers", which are meal replacement products with a higher carbohydrate: Whereas a MRP will typically have a 0. A thermogenic is a broad term for any supplement that the manufacturer claims will cause thermogenesis , resulting in increased body temperature, increased metabolic rate, and consequently an increased rate in the burning of body fat and weight loss.

Until almost every product found in this supplement category comprised the " ECA stack ": However, on February 6, the Food and Drug Administration FDA banned the sale of ephedra and its alkaloid , ephedrine, for use in weight loss formulas. Several manufacturers replaced the ephedra component of the "ECA" stack with bitter orange or citrus aurantium containing synephrine instead of the ephedrine.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Protein shake. This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. From experimental data to clinical evidence in sarcopenia". HMB is widely used as an ergogenic supplement by young athletes.

B; Serrano, J; Hoofnagle, J. Br J Sports Med. Retrieved 1 December While federal law shut the door on regulation of dietary supplements, marketing hype may be leading the popular aids up courthouse steps". Retrieved December 11, Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved December 14, The New York Times. The team found the compound — N,alpha-diethylphenylethylamine — has a structure similar to methamphetamine, a powerful, highly addictive, illegal stimulant drug.

In the US, Special K provides meal replacements in two different forms, protein meal bars and protein shakes. There are eight varieties of Special K Protein Shakes: Kellogg's Special K snacks are marketed as low-fat alternatives to regular snacks.

There are five varieties of Special K Breakfast Shakes: There are two varieties of Special K Cereal Bars: Red Berries, and Chocolatey Pretzel.

There are five varieties of Special K Cracker Chips: There are two varieties of Special K Popcorn: Kettle Corn and White Cheddar. There is one variety of Special K Crackers: It was produced in several flavors and has been marketed as a weight-control and weight-loss product.

The product was re-launched in by the Kellogg Company. The product is no longer available. The product was also manufactured in a powdered form as a drink mix that is sold in packets, which is then added to water. Kellogg's produces Special K Protein Shakes. Until the mid, Kellogg's used a special Special K formula that was different in Canada from that used in the U.

The discontinued Canadian formula had a different taste which reflected the "Canadian taste preference" according to the Consumer Relations department of Kellogg's in Canada. Kellogg wants Special K's message to be about self-empowerment, rather than counting calories. Discussing how Canadian women's approach to health management has changed, Natasha Millar of Kellogg Canada said: Skinny is not how she wants to be perceived, but rather, strong. It's not about losing weight, it's about working out and building her sense of self.

Denmark has outlawed the addition of vitamins in Kellogg's products since Danish health officials banned cereals containing added vitamins because they claimed Kellogg's Special K wanted to add extremely high levels of vitamin B 6 , calcium , folic acid , and iron , which would reach toxic levels when eaten on a daily basis.

Young children risk liver and kidney damage while the fetuses of pregnant women could suffer complications. The show provided evidence that the iron was not nutritional ionic iron—as it occurs in natural foods like spinach—but was, in fact, metallic iron. A Kellogg's telephone help desk employee was not willing to discuss the ingredients of their products in general, claiming it was a company secret; although, in the show, the company was not confronted with the findings.

The nutritional experts in the show agreed that metallic iron should not be part of a diet. Metallic iron is speculated to damage organs. They also challenged the claim that the cereal could contain "shredded bites," and responded that iron powder is suitable for human consumption. The evidence provided during the show followed David Catz's description of an experiment by Dr. Babu George, Sacred Heart University, in which iron is extracted from cereals.

As a result of this experiment being published and inquiries being made to the manufacturers, some companies have replaced the metallic iron in their products with an iron compound such as iron III phosphate, ferric phosphate. In May , shoppers disapproved of the altered Special K formula, complaining that the cereal's flakes are too hard.

The reason behind the extra crunch is the additional ingredient, barley. Kellogg shoppers also complained that the cereal has become too sugary. In late February , the company announced on its website that it was recalling three sizes of the Special K Red Berries in the US which might contain pieces of glass.

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