Kidneys and Urinary System

Kidneys and Urinary System Topics

Cardiovascular disease
Levothyroxine is converted to triiodothyronine by the body; dogs that cannot make this conversion will need both levothyroxine and triiodothyronine. There is no evidence of vertical transmission. Primary function of respiratory mechanism is to supply each body cell with desired amount Add to Wish List. Egg disinfection may help reduce impact of the disease. The most consistent lesion associated with EHN is focal necrosis of hematopoietic tissue in the anterior kidney and liver.

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Coats the aqueous layer, provides a hydrophobic barrier that envelops tears and prevents their spilling onto the cheek. These glands are found among the tarsal plates. Thus, the tear fluid deposits between the eye proper and oil barriers of the lids. Coats the cornea , provides a hydrophilic layer and allows for even distribution of the tear film. In healthy mammalian eyes, the cornea is continually kept wet and nourished by basal tears. They lubricate the eye, and help to keep it clear of dust.

Tear fluid contains water, mucin , lipids , lysozyme , lactoferrin , lipocalin , lacritin , immunoglobulins , glucose , urea , sodium , and potassium. Some of the substances in lacrimal fluid such as lysozyme fight against bacterial infection as a part of the immune system. Lysozyme does this by dissolving a layer in the outer coating, called peptidoglycan, of certain bacteria.

It is a typical body fluid with a salt content similar to blood plasma. Usually, in a hour period, 0. Ascorbate and Urate constitute half of the tears. The second type of tears results from irritation of the eye by foreign particles, or from the presence of irritant substances such as onion vapors, perfumes and other fragrances, tear gas , or pepper spray in the eye's environment, including the cornea, conjunctiva, or nasal mucosa, which trigger TRP channels in the ophthalmic nerve.

It is also linked with vomiting, coughing and yawning. The third category, in general, referred to as crying or weeping , is increased tearing due to strong emotional stress , pleasure, anger , suffering , mourning , or physical pain. This water or fluid is called electrolyte and is responsible for carrying neuro-transmissions. Potassium is also required to keep the blood pressure levels stable.

Deficiency of potassium is known to be deterrent to the body as it increases the possibility of developing hypertension. Potassium in Apricots maintains electrolyte balance, optimizes the blood pressure and reduces the chances of hypertension led stroke.

All the plant items that contain iron include Non-heme iron. Most of the dry fruits contain this type of iron. The specialty of this iron is that the body does not readily absorb it.

This way the amount of unabsorbed iron stays for a longer period in the body and is more efficient when absorbed slowly. For better absorption, however, one can consume it with any other sources of Vitamin C. Anemia is a common blood-related condition wherein blood contains a lower level of Red Blood Corpuscles and hence, a lower level of hemoglobin content in the body. It is often characterized by dizziness, weakness, fatigue, nausea and inability to carry out day to day activities due to persistent tiredness.

According to the World Health Organization, it is one of the most severe forms of nutritional disorders in the whole world. Young girls and especially the women are more prone to developing anemia than men because they lose blood every month during menstruation.

Apricot contains non-heme iron which gets absorbed slowly, gradually and much more effectively thus protecting from Anemia. Free radicals in the body are harmful and attack the DNA structure at cellular level causing abnormal growth of cells. Free radicals inhibit the natural course of cell growth and in long term invade the healthy cells and destroy them as well. The rich levels of antioxidants in apricots are helpful in lowering your risk of developing cancer. In fact apricot kernels better known as its seeds have been found to kill cancerous growths without apparent side effects.

Antioxidants in the body keep it clean from free radicals. It thus saves the body from many different types of cancers, including cancers of the lungs, esophagus, and the larynx. Rich content of antioxidants in apricots lend it cancer inhibiting properties that controls and prevents the growth of cancerous cells in the body. The high level of antioxidants like Vitamin A , Vitamin C and phytonutrients in apricots are highly recommended for maintaining skin health.

The antioxidants in apricots slow down the process of aging by facilitating faster cell production that replaces the layer of dead and worn out cells. It renews the skin layers and removes the fine wrinkles giving your skin a taut appearance. Vitamin A also ensures that the skin is free from acne and other such general skin problems. The antioxidants in apricot make skin youthful, healthy and delay the appearance of ageing on face.

The high amount of dietary fiber that the apricot fruit is gifted with is useful for those people who are looking at losing a few kilos.

High fiber content improves the digestive and excretory systems in the body and helps improve the rate of metabolism. Consumption of apricots makes for a healthy snacking if you are following a dietary regime to lose excessive weight and working out as well. Apricots can restore the electrolyte balance and fill your stomach without adding the calories that eventually build up the weight of the body.

Fiber, low calories and mineral content of apricot make them an ideal snack for people on strict diet and facilitates the weight loss as well. Apricots are rich in calcium and potassium content. The body requires calcium in bone formation and bone development. Lack of calcium leads to a disorder of the bones called Osteoporosis. The high calcium content is thus useful in the keeping of bone health and saves you from brittle bones.

However, one essential mineral that regulates the absorption, distribution and excretion of calcium in our body is Potassium. Without potassium, all calcium that you consume and calcium contained in the bones would be released in blood stream eventually getting evicted from the body.

It will not only affect the bone health but will also choke the bladder that purifies the blood. Apricots maintain strong and healthy bones owing to their calcium and potassium content. The electrolyte is required for transporting ions and neurotransmission from brain to rest of the body and back. It also maintains a stable fluid level that is necessary for proper expansion and contraction of the muscles. Apricots contain a healthy level of potassium and a moderate quantity of sodium. These are essential minerals required by the body to optimize the electrolyte levels in the body.

Electrolyte levels in the body are maintained by Potassium and sodium amongst other minerals and both of these are contained in apricots in ideal quantities. The major role of antioxidants is to protect from free radicals.

Free radicals are responsible for many health issues like cancer, heart disease and many more. Apart from it, they possess unique benefits that you should consider.

These are the top antioxidants present in apricots. Apricot tends to be healthy fruit option due to its high nutrient content. It contains a perfect balance of vital nutrients that are required during development of child. It is a good source of essential nutrients like calcium, silicon, potassium, iron and phosphorus. Angina pectoris had been recorded centuries earlier.

Cardiovascular surgery in the modern sense began in the s, and open-heart surgery began in the s. The exact incidence of heart disease in the world population is difficult to ascertain , because complete and adequate public health figures for either prevalence or related deaths are not available. In the more technologically developed countries of the world—such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and most other European countries— arteriosclerotic heart disease heart disease resulting from thickening and hardening of the artery walls constitutes by far the most predominant form.

In other areas, such as the countries of Central Africa, other forms of heart disease, often nutritional in nature, are a common cause of death. In Asia and the islands of the Pacific, hypertensive cardiovascular disease, disease involving high blood pressure , constitutes a major health hazard. Cardiovascular disease, a general term that encompasses diseases of the heart and blood vessels, is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Coronary heart disease CHD , also known as coronary artery disease or ischemic heart disease, is the most common—and the most….

Congenital heart disease is one of the important types of diseases affecting the cardiovascular system, with an incidence of about 8 per 1, live births. In most patients the causes appear to fit in the middle of a continuum from primarily genetic to primarily environmental. Of the few cases that have a genetic nature, the defect may be the result of a single mutant gene , while in other cases it may be associated with a chromosomal abnormality , the most common of which is Down syndrome , in which about 50 percent of afflicted children have a congenital cardiac abnormality.

In the even smaller number of cases of an obvious environmental cause, a variety of specific factors are evident. The occurrence of rubella German measles in a woman during the first three months of pregnancy is caused by a virus and is associated in the child with patent ductus arteriosus nonclosure of the opening between the aorta and the pulmonary artery.

Other viruses may be responsible for specific heart lesions, and a number of drugs, including antiepileptic agents, are associated with an increased incidence of congenital heart disease.

In most cases, congenital heart disease is probably caused by a variety of factors, and any genetic factor is usually unmasked only if it occurs together with the appropriate environmental hazard. The risk of a sibling of a child with congenital heart disease being similarly affected is between 2 and 4 percent.

The precise recurrence can vary for individual congenital cardiovascular lesions. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular abnormalities is still at an early stage. The most promising technique is ultrasonography , used for many years to examine the fetus in utero. The increasing sophistication of equipment has made it possible to examine the heart and the great vessels from 16 to 18 weeks of gestation onward and to determine whether defects are present.

Amniocentesis removal and examination of a small quantity of fluid from around the developing fetus provides a method by which the fetal chromosomes can be examined for chromosomal abnormalities associated with congenital heart disease. In many children and adults the presence of congenital heart disease is detected for the first time when a cardiac murmur is heard.

A congenital cardiovascular lesion is rarely signaled by a disturbance of the heart rate or the heart rhythm. Congenital cardiac disturbances are varied and may involve almost all components of the heart and great arteries. Some may cause death at the time of birth, others may not have an effect until early adulthood, and some may be associated with an essentially normal life span.

Nonetheless, about 40 percent of all untreated infants born with congenital heart disease die before the end of their first year. Congenital heart defects can be classified into cyanotic and noncyanotic varieties.

In the cyanotic varieties , a shunt bypasses the lungs and delivers venous deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart into the arterial circulation. Some infants with severe noncyanotic varieties of congenital heart disease may fail to thrive and may have breathing difficulties. Abnormalities of the heart chambers may be serious and even life-threatening.

In hypoplastic left heart syndrome, the left-sided heart chambers, including the aorta, are underdeveloped. Infants born with this condition rarely survive more than two or three days. In other cases, only one chamber develops adequately. Survival often depends on the presence of associated compensatory abnormalities, such as continued patency of the ductus arteriosus or the presence of a septal defect, which may allow either decompression of a chamber under elevated pressure or beneficial compensatory intracardiac shunting either from right to left or from left to right.

The presence of a septal defect allows blood to be shunted from the left side of the heart to the right, with an increase in blood flow and volume within the pulmonary circulation. Over many years the added burden on the right side of the heart and the elevation of the blood pressure in the lungs may cause the right side of the heart to fail. Defects in the atrial septum may be small or large and occur most commonly in the midportion in the area prenatally occupied by the aperture called the foramen ovale.

Defects lower on the atrial septum may involve the atrioventricular valves and may be associated with incompetence of these valves. In its most extreme form, there may be virtually no septum between the two atrial chambers.

Atrial septal defect is a noncyanotic type of congenital heart disease and usually is not associated with serious disability during childhood.

SKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMY