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The amount of parental care after fledging varies; albatross chicks leave the nest on their own and receive no further help, while other species continue some supplementary feeding after fledging. Ground Level Elk Handling Facilities " This extinct group of predatory, flightless birds dominated South America from 65 million to 2. Evidence for true, vaned feathers similar to the flight feathers of modern birds has been found only in the theropod subgroup Maniraptora , which includes oviraptorosaurs, troodontids, dromaeosaurids, and birds. In the dairy industry, where the primary revenue source is milk production and sale, calf delivery and newborn calf management are undervalued as areas of concern.
AVIAN Defined for English Language Learners
Click on BIF Guidelines. Breeding Herd Evaluation; Calving difficulty or ease scores; Disposal codes: Animal Evaluation; Chapter 4: National Cattle Evaluation; etc. Examples of "The Tennessee Cattle Lane: We believe that these practices potentially will help the producer's bottom-line and will aid in the production of high quality and safe beef products for the consumer Examples of "Beef Cattle" Subject Categories include " Freeze Branding Cattle " When super-cold or chilled branding irons are applied to the hide of the animal, the pigment-producing cells are destroyed or altered Physical description; Three-piece horse and cattle brand series; Crossbranding; Positions for branding horses and cattle; etc Guide to Evaluation of Slaughter Cattle " Standards for Grades of Feeder Cattle Sections include " Bovine Myology Lessons include " Where the Development of Meat Starts; Myogenesis: Clinical Examination of the Fresh Cows " The purpose of this presentation is to train the person s working with fresh cows to accurately detect, effectively treat and record 8 important conditions that occur commonly in this group of cows.
Dairy Cow Reference Guides include " Dairy Cattle Nutrition, Mineral Supplements, etc. For more information see Dairy ; Penn State Extension: Examples of "Castration of Calves" Subject Categories include " Click on Clinical Info. Dairy Herd Vaccination Program includes: Dairy Cattle Vaccination Guidelines include " Killed inactivated vaccines KV vs Modified-live vaccines MLV ; Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of modified-live and killed inactivated vaccines; Recommended vaccination schedule for dairy heifers from birth to 6 months of age; Recommended vaccination schedule for heifers pre-breeding to calving; Recommended vaccination schedule for adult dairy cattle; Recommended vaccination schedule for dairy herd bulls; etc Examples of "Injection Methods" Subject Categories include " Browse Down to "Body Condition Scoring".
Body Condition Scores " Condition scores can be used on both heifers and cows, although primarily they are used on the lactating dairy herd. Essentially, body condition scoring provides an objective indication of the amount of fat cover on a dairy cow Dairy Cattle Tattooing Procedures include " Clean Ear With Alcohol; Step 2. Types of Ink; Step 3. Applying the Ink; Step 4.
In the dairy industry, where the primary revenue source is milk production and sale, calf delivery and newborn calf management are undervalued as areas of concern. The problem of dystocia has been almost ignored Examples of "Dairy Cattle" Subject Categories include " Galactopoeisis is the maintenance of lactation once lactation has been established.
Two key interrelated components contribute to the maintenance of lactation, galactopoietic hormones and removal of accumulated milk. Because of the importance of galactopoietic hormones in milk production, sometimes the word galactopoiesis also is used to indicate enhancement of lactation, especially in dairy animals Milk Composition and Characteristics; Milk Components For more information see Walter L.
Milking Systems; Robotic Milking Systems; etc. Forage Harvesting Systems, etc Multimedia Milk Quality Program: Examples of "Milk Quality" Subject Categories include " It focuses on the biological, chemical, physical, and microbiological aspects of milk itself, and on the technological processing aspects of the transformation of milk into its various consumer products Milk Lipids; Milk Proteins; etc Density; Viscosity; Freezing Point; etc How Old is My Deer includes: Examples of Deer Farmers Handbook Chapters include " Kime, extension associate in agricultural economics; Jayson K.
Morton, Illustrated by S. Parasitology of Reindeer Parasites; Internal Parasites; etc. List of Figures Skeleton of the reindeer; Structure of the lungs; Ruminant stomach of the reindeer; Female urogenital system in reindeer; Male urogenital system in reindeer; etc For "Reindeer Reproduction" see " Length of estrous cycle for various livestock species raised in Alaska; Table 2. Type of estrous cycle and time of year of the breeding season if the species is seasonal breeder; Table 3.
Length of gestation for livestock species raised in Alaska; Table 4. Time of ovulation and suggested time of mating for several species Kime, senior extension associate; Robert S. Examples of "Elk Production" Guide Sections include " Ground Level Elk Handling Facilities " The following drawings and designs describe an approach to handling elk. Construction suggestions and operational tips of the system are included For "Muskox" Reproduction see " Yak in Bhutan; etc.
Shell Egg Grades and Standards U. The Poultry Page is " An on-line zoological garden of domestic poultry, including photos, video and information about various breeds of fowl, such as chickens, ducks, geese, guinea fowl, peafowl, pigeons, and turkeys Shell Egg Grades and Standards include " Grades of Shell Eggs; U.
Trade Descriptions for Poultry U. Trade Descriptions for Poultry " The purpose of this standard is to facilitate trade at the wholesale level by better communicating product and packaging specifications for raw poultry products among buyers, producers, and traders. The trade descriptions pro- vide concise word and picture descriptions of product composition and define a coding system to precisely specify product and packaging characteristics Click on "Heart Rates".
Poultry Medicine Clinical Cases; etc Each "Poultry Diseases" includes " Includes over "" Poultry Disease Technical Reports.
Each "Poultry Disease" Technical Report includes " Poultry Vaccination Schedules include Vaccination Schedules for " Examples of "Poultry Vaccination" Sections include " Handling vaccines on the farm; etc New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, Examples of "Poultry Science" Subject Categories include " Total incubation time to hatch, time for transfer to hatcher, and dry and wet bulb temperatures for common birds. Growing Your Range Poultry Business: Raising Birds on Pasture; etc Examples of "Ornithology" Course Chapters include " The goals include and increased understanding of the process of gathering scientific data and the opportuinty to interacti with scientists from several disciplines The day Chick Lifecycle Ratites: Lacking the large keel on the breast bone where flight muscles attach, these birds are unable to fly Scheideler University of Nebraska and J.
The design of successful feeding programs for ratites ostriches and emus is a special challenge to nutritionists and production managers. There is little scientifically based information on nutrient requirements and efficiency of nutrient utilization by ratites.
Nevertheless, successful feeding programs have been developed by using Comparative intestinal lengths of ostriches, emus, and chickens; Body weights of ostriches and emus at selected ages; Nutrition guidelines for ostriches; Nutritional guidelines for emus; Concentrations of selected nutrients in ingredients used in feeds of ostriches and emus Ostrich reach an adult height of over 7 feet by 16 to 18 months of age.
They continue to increase in weight after this time with adult males reaching over pounds. Ostrich may become sexually mature at 2 years of age although males often mature later than females.
It is not uncommon for hens to begin laying at 2 to 3 years of age while males may take as long as 4 to 5 years to be functionally mature Examples of "Biology of the Goat" Lessons include " Internal Parasites; External Parasites; etc Body Condition Scoring of Goats Video " Scoring is performed in goats using a BCS ranging from 1.
A BCS of 1. With practice, evaluating the BCS of an animal will only take about seconds Reference Guides include " Meat Production and Marketing; etc Creep feeding; Out-of-season Breeding; Flushing; etc Emergency first aid; Monitoring your herd; Taking vital signs; Vaccinating goats; Kid care; Parasites; etc Breaking down a carcass; Cheesemaking simplified; Feta Cheese; etc You can access the modules either for Certification or for Browsing.
Composting is an inexpensive, environmentally friendly method of disposing of animal mortality At maturity 3 years , it is able to pull a cart or carry a pack as it did in its native Sicily and Sardinia Horse Transverse Section Guide " The study of transverse sections is a traditional component of most veterinary anatomy courses.
To interpret transverse sections, veterinary students must switch from the three dimensions of their cadaver to the two-dimensional plane of the section Dental Anatomy of Horses " The molars and premolars of the horse are known as cheek teeth. The cheek teeth slowly erupt to compensate for the constant grinding which wears away mm per year.
For this reason, horses have very long teeth that are refered to as hypsodont which means "high tooth. Aging Horses by Their Teeth " For very young horses, eruption dates are useful, but in general, the place to start is examination of the occlusal surface of the lower incisors. The weight of your horse is the basic guide to calculating balanced rations, the single most necessary factor for sound health and good peformance Semen Collection from Stallions " Semen is collected from stallions as part of breeding soundness exams, as well as for artificial insemination.
Semen collected for insemination can be used fresh, cooled and shipped to another location, or stored frozen for use in the future The physical examination of the horse may be either generalized or focused Assisted Reproduction Techniques; Vaginoscopic Exam; etc Pregnancy Examination of the Mare Subject Catgories include " High Speed Equine Treadmill " The system developed by Dr. Henneke assigns a numerical value to fat deposition as it occurs in various places on the horse's body.
The system works by assessing fat both visually and by palpation examination by touch , in each of six areas Our standard underbench filter removes a huge range of metals commonly found in your water. BUT before we any recommend any solutions, we recommend Water Testing. If you are unsure and particularly if you are on bore water, we recommend water testing first.
In numerous water tests we have found excessive heavy metal levels that would affect your health. What are the negative health effects from heavy metals?
Definition of a Heavy Metal What metals are in our water? How do we remove heavy metals? Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate. Bioaccumulation means an increase in the concentration of a chemical in a biological organism over time, compared to the chemical's concentration in the environment. Compounds accumulate in living things any time they are taken up and stored faster than they are broken down metabolized or excreted.
Heavy metals can enter a water supply by industrial and consumer waste, or even from acidic rain breaking down soils and releasing heavy metals into streams, lakes, rivers, and groundwater.
The association of symptoms indicative of acute toxicity is not difficult to recognize because the symptoms are usually severe, rapid in onset, and associated with a known exposure or ingestion Ferner The symptoms of toxicity resulting from chronic exposure impaired cognitive, motor, and language skills; learning difficulties; nervousness and emotional instability; and insomnia, nausea, lethargy, and feeling ill are also easily recognized; however, they are much more difficult to associate with their cause.
Symptoms of chronic exposure are very similar to symptoms of other health conditions and often develop slowly over months or even years. Sometimes the symptoms of chronic exposure actually abate from time to time, leading the person to postpone seeking treatment, thinking the symptoms are related to something else.
Simply stated, specific gravity is a measure of density of a given amount of a solid substance when it is compared to an equal amount of water. Some well-known toxic metallic elements with a specific gravity that is 5 or more times that of water are arsenic, 5.
In small quantities, certain heavy metals are nutritionally essential for a healthy life. Some of these are referred to as the trace elements e. These elements, or some form of them, are commonly found naturally in foodstuffs, in fruits and vegetables, and in commercially available multivitamin products International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre Diagnostic medical applications include direct injection of gallium during radiological procedures, dosing with chromium in parenteral nutrition mixtures, and the use of lead as a radiation shield around x-ray equipment Roberts Heavy metals are also common in industrial applications such as in the manufacture of pesticides, batteries, alloys, electroplated metal parts, textile dyes, steel, and so forth.
Many of these products are in our homes and actually add to our quality of life when properly used. The term heavy metal refers to any metallic chemical element that has a relatively high density and is toxic or poisonous at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter our bodies via food, drinking water and air. As trace elements, some heavy metals e.
However, at higher concentrations they can lead to poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination e. Aluminium Although aluminium is not a heavy metal specific gravity of 2.
It is readily available for human ingestion through drinking water. Studies began to emerge about 20 years ago suggesting that aluminium might have a possible connection with developing Alzheimer's disease when researchers found what they considered to be significant amounts of aluminum in the brain tissue of Alzheimer's patients. Although aluminum was also found in the brain tissue of people who did not have Alzheimer's disease, recommendations to avoid sources of aluminum received widespread public attention.
As a result, many organizations and individuals reached a level of concern that prompted them to dispose of all their aluminum cookware and storage containers and to become wary of other possible sources of aluminum, such as soda cans, personal care products, and even their drinking water. However, the World Health Organization WHO concluded that, although there were studies that demonstrate a positive relationship between aluminum in drinking water and Alzheimer's disease, the WHO had reservations about a causal relationship because the studies did not account for total aluminum intake from all possible sources.
Dinosaur mania was exemplified by the fierce rivalry between Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh , both of whom raced to be the first to find new dinosaurs in what came to be known as the Bone Wars. The feud probably originated when Marsh publicly pointed out that Cope's reconstruction of an Elasmosaurus skeleton was flawed: Cope had inadvertently placed the plesiosaur 's head at what should have been the animal's tail end. The fight between the two scientists lasted for over 30 years, ending in when Cope died after spending his entire fortune on the dinosaur hunt.
Marsh 'won' the contest primarily because he was better funded through a relationship with the US Geological Survey. Unfortunately, many valuable dinosaur specimens were damaged or destroyed due to the pair's rough methods: Despite their unrefined methods, the contributions of Cope and Marsh to paleontology were vast: Marsh unearthed 86 new species of dinosaur and Cope discovered 56, a total of new species.
After , the search for dinosaur fossils extended to every continent, including Antarctica. The first Antarctic dinosaur to be discovered, the ankylosaurid Antarctopelta oliveroi , was found on James Ross Island in ,  although it was before an Antarctic species, the theropod Cryolophosaurus ellioti , was formally named and described in a scientific journal.
Current dinosaur "hot spots" include southern South America especially Argentina and China. China in particular has produced many exceptional feathered dinosaur specimens due to the unique geology of its dinosaur beds, as well as an ancient arid climate particularly conducive to fossilization.
The field of dinosaur research has enjoyed a surge in activity that began in the s and is ongoing. This was triggered, in part, by John Ostrom 's discovery of Deinonychus , an active predator that may have been warm-blooded , in marked contrast to the then-prevailing image of dinosaurs as sluggish and cold-blooded.
Vertebrate paleontology has become a global science. Major new dinosaur discoveries have been made by paleontologists working in previously unexploited regions, including India , South America, Madagascar , Antarctica , and most significantly China the amazingly well-preserved feathered dinosaurs  in China have further consolidated the link between dinosaurs and their living descendants, modern birds.
The widespread application of cladistics , which rigorously analyzes the relationships between biological organisms, has also proved tremendously useful in classifying dinosaurs. Cladistic analysis, among other modern techniques, helps to compensate for an often incomplete and fragmentary fossil record. One of the best examples of soft-tissue impressions in a fossil dinosaur was discovered in Pietraroia, Italy.
The discovery was reported in , and described the specimen of a small, very young coelurosaur , Scipionyx samniticus. The fossil includes portions of the intestines, colon, liver, muscles, and windpipe of this immature dinosaur. In the March issue of Science , the paleontologist Mary Higby Schweitzer and her team announced the discovery of flexible material resembling actual soft tissue inside a million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex leg bone from the Hell Creek Formation in Montana.
After recovery, the tissue was rehydrated by the science team. Scrutiny under the microscope further revealed that the putative dinosaur soft tissue had retained fine structures microstructures even at the cellular level. The exact nature and composition of this material, and the implications of Schweitzer's discovery, are not yet clear. In , a team including Schweitzer announced that, using even more careful methodology, they had duplicated their results by finding similar soft tissue in a duck-billed dinosaur , Brachylophosaurus canadensis , found in the Judith River Formation of Montana.
This included even more detailed tissue, down to preserved bone cells that seem even to have visible remnants of nuclei and what seem to be red blood cells. Among other materials found in the bone was collagen , as in the Tyrannosaurus bone. The type of collagen an animal has in its bones varies according to its DNA and, in both cases, this collagen was of the same type found in modern chickens and ostriches.
The extraction of ancient DNA from dinosaur fossils has been reported on two separate occasions;  upon further inspection and peer review , however, neither of these reports could be confirmed. In , researchers reported finding structures similar to blood cells and collagen fibers, preserved in the bone fossils of six Cretaceous dinosaur specimens, which are approximately 75 million years old.
By human standards, dinosaurs were creatures of fantastic appearance and often enormous size. As such, they have captured the popular imagination and become an enduring part of human culture.
Entry of the word "dinosaur" into the common vernacular reflects the animals' cultural importance: Public enthusiasm for dinosaurs first developed in Victorian England, where in , three decades after the first scientific descriptions of dinosaur remains, a menagerie of lifelike dinosaur sculptures were unveiled in London 's Crystal Palace Park.
The Crystal Palace dinosaurs proved so popular that a strong market in smaller replicas soon developed. In subsequent decades, dinosaur exhibits opened at parks and museums around the world, ensuring that successive generations would be introduced to the animals in an immersive and exciting way. In the United States, for example, the competition between museums for public attention led directly to the Bone Wars of the s and s, during which a pair of feuding paleontologists made enormous scientific contributions.
The popular preoccupation with dinosaurs has ensured their appearance in literature , film , and other media. Beginning in with a passing mention in Charles Dickens ' Bleak House ,  dinosaurs have been featured in large numbers of fictional works. Jules Verne 's novel Journey to the Center of the Earth , Sir Arthur Conan Doyle 's book The Lost World , the iconic film King Kong , the Godzilla and its many sequels, the best-selling novel Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton and its film adaptation are just a few notable examples of dinosaur appearances in fiction.
Authors of general-interest non-fiction works about dinosaurs, including some prominent paleontologists, have often sought to use the animals as a way to educate readers about science in general. Dinosaurs are ubiquitous in advertising ; numerous companies have referenced dinosaurs in printed or televised advertisements, either in order to sell their own products or in order to characterize their rivals as slow-moving, dim-witted, or obsolete.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Dinosaur disambiguation. Middle Triassic — Present , Saurischian pelvis structure left side. Ornithischian pelvis structure left side. Cultural depictions of dinosaurs. Animal track Dinosaur diet and feeding Evolutionary history of life Lists of dinosaur-bearing stratigraphic units List of dinosaur genera List of unavailable dinosaur genera.
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The Dinosauria Second ed. Retrieved 22 March The Dinosaur Data Book. Fossil bias and true richness estimated using a Poisson sampling model". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. The Scientific American Book of Dinosaurs. Retrieved 21 January Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. Holland and the Sprawling Sauropods". Archived from the original on The arguments and many of the images are also presented in Desmond, A.
History of Life 4th ed. Archived from the original PDF on October 25, A Middle Triassic dinosauriform from Tanzania. Archived from the original PDF on The Dinosauria 2d edition. David; Fastovsky, David E. The youngest record of phorusrhacid birds Aves, Phorusrhacidae from the late Pleistocene of Uruguay. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie and Paläont.
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